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Articles on this Page
- 07/19/13--05:00: _Nice way of showing...
- 07/22/13--05:00: _3GPP Rel.11 Technol...
- 07/24/13--05:00: _Connectivity in 'Co...
- 07/28/13--05:00: _New RRC message in ...
- 07/29/13--11:00: _Big Data and Vulner...
- 07/31/13--11:00: _Making LTE fit for ...
- 08/02/13--10:30: _Mobile Relay Nodes ...
- 08/06/13--00:00: _M2M, Cellular and S...
- 08/08/13--12:30: _2 Factor and 3 Fact...
- 08/12/13--04:30: _C-RAN Architecture ...
- 08/15/13--04:30: _Stress Testing of L...
- 08/21/13--00:00: _eIMTA: Enhanced Int...
- 08/23/13--05:00: _How Cyber-Attacks C...
- 08/25/13--09:30: _Centralized SON
- 08/29/13--09:30: _New Mobile related ...
- 08/31/13--07:30: _VoLTE Bearers
- 09/05/13--05:00: _Throughput Comparis...
- 09/09/13--01:00: _LTE TDD - universal...
- 09/13/13--04:15: _LTE for Utilities a...
- 09/16/13--11:30: _#5G: Your Questions...
- 07/19/13--05:00: Nice way of showing HetNets, by Cisco #LTEWS
- 07/22/13--05:00: 3GPP Rel.11 Technology Introduction whitepaper
- 07/24/13--05:00: Connectivity in 'Connected Vehicles'
- 07/28/13--05:00: New RRC message in Rel-11: In-device coexistence indication
- 07/29/13--11:00: Big Data and Vulnerability of Cellular Systems
- 07/31/13--11:00: Making LTE fit for the IoT
- 08/02/13--10:30: Mobile Relay Nodes (MRN) in Rel-12
- 08/06/13--00:00: M2M, Cellular and Small Cells
- 08/08/13--12:30: 2 Factor and 3 Factor Authentication (2FA / 3FA)
- 08/12/13--04:30: C-RAN Architecture and Challenges
- 08/15/13--04:30: Stress Testing of LTE devices
- 08/21/13--00:00: eIMTA: Enhanced Interference Mitigation & Traffic Adaptation
- 08/23/13--05:00: How Cyber-Attacks Can Impact M2M Infrastructure
- 08/25/13--09:30: Centralized SON
- 08/29/13--09:30: New Mobile related terms added in Oxford dictionary
- 08/31/13--07:30: VoLTE Bearers
- 09/05/13--05:00: Throughput Comparison for different wireless technologies
- 09/09/13--01:00: LTE TDD - universal solution for unpaired spectrum?
- 09/13/13--04:15: LTE for Utilities and Smart Grids
- Introduction to M2M and its developments in LTE
- From M2M Communications to IoT
- M2M Standardization and its Role for Emerging Smart Cities
- Everything you ever wanted to know about M2M
- 09/16/13--11:30: #5G: Your Questions Answered
Another excellent summary whitepaper by R&S, embedded below:
From the Rel-11 whitepaper posted last week here:
To assist the base station in selecting an appropriate solution, all necessary/available assistance information for both time and frequency domain solutions is sent together in the IDC indication. The IDC assistance information contains the list of carrier frequencies suffering from on-going interference and the direction of the interference. Additionally it may also contain time domain patterns or parameters to enable appropriate DRX configuration for time domain solutions on the serving LTE carrier frequency.
Note that the network is in the control of whether or not to activate this interference avoidance mechanism. The InDeviceCoexIndication message from the UE may only be sent if a measurement object for this frequency has been established. This is the case, when the RRCConnectionReconfiguration message from the eNB contains the information element idc-Config. The existence of this message declares that an InDeviceCoexIndication message may be sent. The IDC message indicates which frequencies of which technologies are interfered and gives assistance to possible time domain solutions. These comprise DRX assistance information and a list of IDC subframes, which indicate which HARQ processes E-UTRAN is requested to abstain from using. This information describes only proposals, it is completely up to the network to do the decisions.
You can also listen to the audio of his presentation here.
here. This will become important when we have loads of devices trying to access the network at the same time.
The presentation is embedded below and you can also listen to the audio here.
Interesting article in IEEE Comms Magazine (embedded below) about the Moving Relay Node (MRN). 3GPP has done a study on a similar topic available in 3GPP TR 36.386. To make the case for the MRN they provide a reference scenario of high speed train
MRN is a good solution but when it has to operate alongside with many other technologies can pose challenges. The IEEE article summarises it as follows:
Furthermore, new challenges regarding interference management arise due to the use of MRNs. As the distance between an MRN and the vehicular UE served by it is very short, the MRN and the vehicular UE can communicate with each other using very low power. In addition, the VPL can further help to dampen the signal of the MRN access link that propagates out from the vehicle. Thus, compared to direct transmission, the use of MRNs generates less interference from the access link, for both downlink and uplink, to UE outside the vehicles. This is appreciated in a densely deployed urban scenario where link availabilities are usually dependent on interference rather than coverage. For the backhaul link, however, the problem becomes complicated, as interference is expected both between different MRN backhaul links, and between MRN backhaul links and macro UE. The use of predictor antennas can improve CSI accuracy to enable the use of advanced interference avoidance and cancellation schemes for the backhaul links. Nevertheless, whether enhancements on the current intercell interference coordination (ICIC) framework in LTE are needed to support the use of MRNs still requires further investigation.
I have been thinking of possible use of 8x8 MIMO, this can be one possible scenario where the network may use 8x8 or even 4x4. Anyway, the complete article is embedded below:
Feel free to add any comments you may have on the blog post here.
You can also read more about this and Multi-factor Authentication (MFA) on Wikipedia here.
I have blogged about Cloud RAN or C-RAN in the Metrocells blog here and am looking forward to more discussions on this topic in the SON conference later this year.
I came across this interesting presentation from Orange in the LTE World Summit this year where the authors have detailed the C-RAN architecture and also discussing the fronthaul challenges faced by C-RAN. The presentation is embedded as follows. Please feel free to add your comments with your opinions.
Another interesting presentation from R&S LTE Summit 2013 embedded below:
eIMTA is one of the features being discussed in 3GPP Rel-12. The pictures above and below provide the details.
See also, this slideshare presentation for details:
An Interesting presentation from Deutsche Telekom in the Network Security Conference which highlights some of the issues faced by the M2M infrastructure. With 500 Billion devices being predicted, security will have to be stepped up for the M2M infrastructures to work as expected. Complete presentation embedded below:
I was going through the presentation by SKT that I blogged about here and came across this slide above. SKT is clearly promoting the benefits of their C-SON (centralized SON) here.
The old 4G Americas whitepaper (here) explained the differences between the three approaches; Centralized (C-SON), Distributed (D-SON) and Hybrid (H-SON). An extract from that paper here:
In a centralized architecture, SON algorithms for one or more use cases reside on the Element Management System (EMS) or a separate SON server that manages the eNB's. The output of the SON algorithms namely, the values of specific parameters, are then passed to the eNB's either on a periodic basis or when needed. A centralized approach allows for more manageable implementation of the SON algorithms. It allows for use case interactions between SON algorithms to be considered before modifying SON parameters. However, active updates to the use case parameters are delayed since KPIs and UE measurement information must be forwarded to a centralized location for processing. Filtered and condensed information are passed from the eNB to the centralized SON server to preserve the scalability of the solution in terms of the volume of information transported. Less information is available at the SON server compared to that which would be available at the eNB. Higher latency due to the time taken to collect UE information restricts the applicability of a purely centralized SON architecture to those algorithms that require slower response time. Furthermore, since the centralized SON server presents a single point of failure, an outage in the centralized server or backhaul could result in stale and outdated parameters being used at the eNB due to likely less frequent updates of SON parameters at the eNB compared to that is possible in a distributed solution.
In practical deployments, these architecture alternatives are not mutually exclusive and could coexist for different purposes, as is realized in a hybrid SON approach. In a hybrid approach, part of a given SON optimization algorithm are executed in the NMS while another part of the same SON algorithm could be executed in the eNB. For example, the values of the initial parameters could be done in a centralized server and updates and refinement to those parameters in response to the actual UE measurements could be done on the eNB's.Each implementation has its own advantages and disadvantages. The choice of centralized, distributed or hybrid architecture needs to be decided on a use-case by use case basis depending on the information availability, processing and speed of response requirements of that use case. In the case of a hybrid or centralized solution, a practical deployment would require specific partnership between the infrastructure vendor, the operator and possibly a third party tool company. Operators can choose the most suitable approach depending upon the current infrastructure deployment.
Finally, Celcite CMO recently recently gave an interview on this topic on Thinksmallcell here. An extract below:
Let me know your opinions via comments below.
BYOD: n.: abbreviation of 'bring your own device': the practice of allowing the employees of an organisation to use their own computers, smartphones, or other devices for work purposes. Wikipedia also calls it bring your own technology (BYOT), bring your own phone (BYOP), and bring your own PC (BYOPC).
digital detox, n.: a period of time during which a person refrains from using electronic devices such as smartphones or computers, regarded as an opportunity to reduce stress or focus on social interaction in the physical world.
Another term called "Nomophobia" which has unfortunately not yet entered the dictionary refers to as the fear of being out of mobile phone contact. The term, an abbreviation for "no-mobile-phone phobia". According to a recent survey some 54% of Brits have experienced this. If someone is getting affected by Nomophobia, its time they undergo a 'digital detox' to sort their life out.
emoji, n: a small digital image or icon used to express an idea or emotion in electronic communication.
Everyone using OTT applications would know them well. They are very useful in communicating emotions. I generally think this as one of the drawbacks of SMS that we cant use emoji's. On the other hand OTT apps can be making money by providing extended emoji's for a premium but I havent seen anyone do this yet.
FOMO, n.: fear of missing out: anxiety that an exciting or interesting event may currently be happening elsewhere, often aroused by posts seen on a social media website
'FOMO' is big and I personally know people who suffer from this. In the good old days this was known as jealousy where one would be jealous that someone was going on more holidays, have a bigger house/car, etc. In this connected world where we can get Facebook updates and notifications on the phones and tablets the digital term is FOMO. A slide from Mary Meeker's presentation that I put here shows that a typical user checks their phone 150 times every day and social media is not very far from the top.
internet of things, n.: a proposed development of the Internet in which everyday objects have network connectivity, allowing them to send and receive data.
This 'Internet of Things' or 'IoT' has been covered in the blog more than enough times.
phablet, n.: a smartphone having a screen which is intermediate in size between that of a typical smartphone and a tablet computer.
Earlier this year I put a post here that talked all about feature phones, smartphones, phablets, etc. Other terms like Tabphones and Phonetabs didn't make it.
selfie, n. (informal): a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website.
Here is a selfie of me using my phone today to end this post :-)
All networks and mobile devices are required to utilize a common access point name (APN) for VoLTE, namely, “IMS”. Unlike many legacy networks, LTE networks employ the “always-on” conception of packet connectivity: Devices have PDN connectivity virtually from the moment they perform their initial attach to the core network. During the initial attach procedure, some devices choose to name the access point through which they prefer to connect. However, mobile devices are not permitted to name the VoLTE APN during initial attach, i.e., to utilize the IMS as their main PDN, but rather to establish a connection with the IMS AP separately. Thus, VoLTE devices must support multiple simultaneous default EPS bearers.
Note that because the VoLTE APN is universal, mobile devices will always connect through the visited PLMN’s IMS PDN-GW. This architecture also implies the non-optionality of the P-CSCF:
As stated, VoLTE sessions employ two or three DRBs. This, in turn, implies the use of one default EPS bearer plus one or two dedicated EPS bearers. The default EPS bearer is always used for SIP signaling and exactly one dedicated EPS bearer is used for voice packets (regardless of the number of active voice media streams.) XCAP signaling may be transported on its own dedicated EPS bearer – for a total of three active EPS bearers – or it may be multiplexed with the SIP signaling on the default EPS bearer, in which case only two EPS bearers are utilized.
My understanding is that initially when the UE is switched on, a default bearer with QCI 9 (see old posts on QoS/QCI here) is established that would be used for all the signalling. Later on, another default bearer with QCI 5 is established with the IMS CN. When a VoLTE call is being setup, a dedicated bearer with QCI 1 is setup for the voice call. As the article says, another dedicated bearer may be needed for XCAP signalling. If a Video call on top of VoLTE is being used than an additional dedicated bearer with QCI 2 will be setup. Note that the voice pat will still be carried by dedicated bearer with QCI 1.
Do you disagree or have more insight, please feel free to add the comment at the end of the post.
The whitepaper is embedded below and is available to download from slideshare.
TDD deployments are gathering pace. An earlier GSA report I posted here, highlighted the many devices that are TD-LTE ready.
Qualcomm published a presentation on this topic that is embedded below. Available to download from here.
Ericsson has recently published a whitepaper titled "LTE for utilities - supporting smart grids". One of the table that caught my eye is as follows:
LTE would be ideally suited for some of the "Performance class" requirements where the transfer time requirements is less than 100ms. Again, it can always be debated if in many cases WiFi will meet the requirements so should WiFi be used instead of LTE, etc. I will let you form your own conclusions and if you are very passionate and have an opinion, feel free to leave comment.
The whitepaper is embedded below: