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Articles on this Page
- 06/01/18--01:27: _An Alternative 5G f...
- 06/07/18--12:00: _Telefonica and open...
- 06/11/18--08:19: _An Introduction to ...
- 06/16/18--08:43: _Summary and Analysi...
- 06/22/18--11:48: _5G and IoT Security...
- 06/25/18--14:41: _Free Apps for Field...
- 07/03/18--00:06: _Terahertz and Beyon...
- 07/12/18--11:35: _Minimum Bandwidth R...
- 07/19/18--04:30: _5G Synchronisation ...
- 07/24/18--00:39: _Multicast Operation...
- 07/29/18--12:46: _Automating the 5G C...
- 08/05/18--09:41: _ITU 'Network 2030':...
- 08/10/18--11:10: _Changes in LTE pric...
- 08/13/18--00:57: _Telefonica: Big Dat...
- 09/04/18--23:44: _LiFi can be a valua...
- 09/11/18--04:09: _Introduction to Fix...
- 09/14/18--08:06: _End-to-end Network ...
- 09/20/18--23:31: _Base Station Antenn...
- 09/23/18--23:56: _5G New Radio Standa...
- 09/28/18--01:45: _Multi-technology :T...
- 06/01/18--01:27: An Alternative 5G for Rural Communities
- 06/07/18--12:00: Telefonica and open source
- 06/16/18--08:43: Summary and Analysis of Ericsson Mobility Report 2018
- The total number of mobile subscriptions was around 7.9 billion in Q1 2018.
- There are now 5.5 billion mobile broadband subscriptions.
- Global subscription penetration in Q1 2018 was 104 percent.
- The number of LTE subscriptions increased by 210 million during the quarter to reach a total of 2.9 billion.
- Over the same period, GSM/EDGE-only subscriptions declined by 90 million. Other technologies declined by around 32 million.
- Subscriptions associated with smartphones now account for around 60 percent of all mobile phone subscriptions.
- 1 billion 5G subscriptions for enhanced mobile broadband by the end of 2023, accounting for 12 percent of all mobile subscriptions.
- LTE subscriptions continues to grow strongly and is forecast to reach 5.5 billion by the end of 2023
- In 2023, there will be 8.9 billion mobile subscriptions, 8.3 billion mobile broadband subscriptions and 6.1 billion unique mobile subscribers.
- The number of smartphone subscriptions is forecast to reach 7.2 billion in 2023.
- First 5G data-only devices are expected from the second half of 2018.
- The first 3GPP smartphones supporting 5G are expected in early 2019.
- From 2020, when third-generation chipsets will be introduced, large numbers of 5G devices are forecast.
- By 2023, 1 billion 5G devices for enhanced mobile broadband are expected to be connected worldwide.
- At the end of 2017, VoLTE subscriptions exceeded 610 million.
- The number of VoLTE subscriptions is projected to reach 5.4 billion by the end of 2023.
- VoLTE technology will be the foundation for enabling 5G voice calls.
- New use cases in a 5G context are being explored, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR).
- Globally, mobile broadband subscriptions now make up 68 percent of all mobile subscriptions.
- 5G subscriptions will be available in all regions in 2023.
- In 2023, 48 percent of subscriptions in North America and 34 percent in North East Asia are expected to be for 5G.
- In Q1 2018, mobile data traffic grew around 54 percent year-on-year.
- The quarter-on-quarter growth was around 11 percent.
- In 2023, 20 percent of mobile data traffic will be carried by 5G networks.
- North America has the highest monthly usage of mobile data per smartphone at 7.2 gigabytes (GB), anticipated to increase to 49GB in 2023.
- Total mobile data traffic is expected to increase by nearly eight times by the end of 2023.
- In 2023, 95 percent of total mobile data traffic is expected to be generated by smartphones, increasing from 85 percent today.
- North East Asia has the largest share of mobile data traffic – set to reach 25EB per month in 2023.
- In 2023, video will account for around 73 percent of mobile data traffic.
- Traffic from social networking is also expected to rise – increasing by 31 percent annually over the next 6 years.
- The relative share of social networking traffic will decline over the same period, due to the stronger growth of video.
- Streaming videos in different resolutions can impact data traffic consumption to a high degree. Watching HD video (720p) rather than standard resolution video (480p) typically doubles the data traffic volume, while moving to full HD (1080p) doubles it yet again.
- Increased streaming of immersive video formats would also impact data traffic consumption.
- The number of cellular IoT connections is expected to reach 3.5 billion in 2023. This is almost double our last forecast, due to ongoing large-scale deployments in China.
- Of the 3.5 billion cellular IoT connections forecast for 2023, North East Asia is anticipated to account for 2.2 billion.
- New massive cellular IoT technologies, such as NB-IoT and Cat-M1, are taking off and driving growth in the number of cellular IoT connections.
- Mobile operators have commercially launched more than 60 cellular IoT networks worldwide using Cat-M1 and NB-IoT.
- In 2023, more than 20 percent of the world’s population will be covered by 5G.
- 5G is expected to be deployed first in dense urban areas to support enhanced mobile broadband.
- Another early use case for 5G will be fixed wireless access.
- Today, 3GPP cellular networks cover around 95 percent of the world’s population.
- 06/22/18--11:48: 5G and IoT Security Update from ETSI Security Week 2018
- Gather different actors involved in the development of 5G, not only telecom, and discuss together how all their views have shaped phase 1 of 5G, to understand how security requirements were met, and what challenges remain;
- Discuss slicing as a means to implement separate security policies and compartments for independent tenants on the same infrastructure;
- Give an update of what is happening in 3GPP 5G security;
- Explain to IoT players what 5G security can (and cannot) do for them, including risks and opportunities related to alternative access credentials;
- Understand stakeholders' (PMNs, carriers, GSMA, vendors) needs to make SBA both secure and successful. How can SBA tackle existing issues in interconnect networks like fraud, tracking, privacy breaches;
- Allow vendors to present interesting proposals for open security questions in 5G: secure credential store, firewalling SBA's RESTful APIs;
- Debate about hot topics such as: IoT security, Slicing security, Privacy, Secure storage and processing and Security of the interconnection network.
- Detecting false base stations in mobile networks - Ericsson Research Blog
- 5G Security Updates - March 2018 - 3G4G Blog
- Introduction to 3GPP Security in Mobile Cellular Networks - 3G4G Blog
- 06/25/18--14:41: Free Apps for Field Testing - Part 2
- 07/03/18--00:06: Terahertz and Beyond 100 GHz progress
- 07/12/18--11:35: Minimum Bandwidth Requirement for 5G Non-Standalone (NSA) Deployment
- 07/19/18--04:30: 5G Synchronisation Requirements
- thirty-nine operators are known to have been investing in eMBMS demonstrations, trials, deployments or launches
- five operators have now deployed eMBMS or launched some sort of commercial service using eMBMS
- 07/29/18--12:46: Automating the 5G Core using Machine Learning and Data Analytics
- 08/10/18--11:10: Changes in LTE pricing strategies
- Mobile data services are still largely structured by on data allowance, but high volume and unlimited plans are increasingly common.
- Unlimited does not necessarily mean high-end: some target users with a small budget, providing a very slow connection.
- Quality of service becoming central in structuring product lines – especially speed which my or may not be combined with data caps – as is content quality.
- Certain applications being favoured through zero rating (traffic not deducted from the customer’s allowance). This can be a way to market unlimited plans and avoid fixed-mobile substitution.
- Growing number of partnerships with OTT video services, rather than selling premium content plans, which are tending to wane.
- Internet para todos: Telefonica and Parallel Wireless on a mission to connect 100 Million Unconnected
- Automating the 5G Core using Machine Learning and Data Analytics
- ITU 'Network 2030': Initiative to support Emerging Technologies and Innovation looking beyond 5G advances
- Artificial Intelligence - Beyond SON for Autonomous Networks
- Twitter et al. for Small Cell Planning
- 09/04/18--23:44: LiFi can be a valuable tool for densification
- O2 uses light to transmit data in latest network trial
- IEEE Task Force Works on Standard for Light Communications
- Learn How Li-Fi Works from Its Inventor, Harald Haas
- Light Communications for Wireless Local Area Networking
- LiFi can bring enhanced connectivity to your workspace, while also enhancing data security
- 09/11/18--04:09: Introduction to Fixed Wireless Access (FWA)
- 09/14/18--08:06: End-to-end Network Slicing in 5G
- 09/20/18--23:31: Base Station Antenna Considerations for 5G
- 09/23/18--23:56: 5G New Radio Standards and other Presentations
- 09/28/18--01:45: Multi-technology :The future of IoT geolocation
- Asset Management
- Fleet Management
- Anti-theft scooter/bike rental
- Logistics/parcel bags tracking
- Worker safety for Oil and Gas
- Elderly and Disabled care
- Tracking solution for skiers
- Pets and Animal tracking
- What are the market opportunities and use cases enabled by IoT Geolocation?
- What are the benefits of multi-technology geolocation?
- What are the benefits of using LPWAN technologies(LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, LTE-M) for connectivity?
- How LPWAN-enabled Geolocation will evolve in the future?
- How is Actility building multi-technology geolocation platform?
I recently presented my personal vision of an alternative 5G for rural communities on behalf of Parallel Wireless at the IEEE 5G Summit in Glasgow. I believe that the next few years are going to be crucial for MNOs to decide if they want to cover the rural areas or just continue to focus on built-up areas.
In some cases it may not really be worthwhile for example for a smaller operator to build a cellular IoT network as the returns may not be worth the effort and investment.
I should mention that the caveat is that a lot of alternative 5G approach in my presentation depends on at least one of the satellite megaconstellations being successfully deployed and being fully operational. I am assuming a sensible pricing would be in place anyway as the satellite operators cant keep charging whatever they want for ever.
So here is my alternative 5G vision
Slides (and pictures) are available here for anyone interested. For my slides, jump to page 244. Quite a few other good presentations on 5G too.
An article in EE times summarises this IEEE 5G conference quite well. Available here.
Presentations from the IEEE 5G Summit in Glasgow are now available online - https://t.co/rjvjrq2m0o@EEEStrathclyde@5GIEEE#IEEE5G - Here is a bonus 5G Elephant by Rahim Tafazolli from @Surrey5GICpic.twitter.com/wi2HXtCxEB— 3G4G (@3g4gUK) May 31, 2018
Let me know your thoughts.
An interesting presentation by Patrick Lopez, VP Networks Innovation, Telefónica at NFV & Zero Touch World Congress 2018 about how and why Telefónica is moving to open source. Slides and video embedded below
Continuing on the theme of Open Source from last week's post from Telefonica, lets look at the CORD by ONF.
The CORD (Central Office Re-architected as a Datacenter) platform leverages SDN, NFV and Cloud technologies to build agile datacenters for the network edge. Integrating multiple open source projects, CORD delivers a cloud-native, open, programmable, agile platform for network operators to create innovative services.
CORD provides a complete integrated platform, integrating everything needed to create a complete operational edge datacenter with built-in service capabilities, all built on commodity hardware using the latest in cloud-native design principles.
The video above from MWC 2018 is a very short summary of what ONF and CORD is. The video below from OCP Telecom Workshop at the Big Communications Event (BCE) on May 14th, 2018 in Austin, Texas looks at CORD in detail.
Before we start, the official site for the report is here. You can jump directly to the PDF here. Ericsson will also be holding a webinar on this topic on 19 June, you can register here.
Many things to note above. There is still a big part of the world which is unconnected and most of the connectivity being talked about is population based coverage. While GSM/EDGE-only subscriptions are declining, many smartphone users are still camped on to GSM/EDGE for significant time.
While smartphones are growing, feature phones are not far behind. Surprisingly, Reliance Jio has become a leader of 4G feature phones.
My analysis from the developing world shows that many users are getting a GSM feature phone as a backup for when smartphone runs out of power.
Mobile subscriptions worldwide outlook
The report describes "A 5G subscription is counted as such when associated with a device that supports NR as specified in 3GPP Release 15, connected to a 5G-enabled network." which is a good approach but does not talk about 5G availability. My old question (tweet below) on "How many 5G sites does an operator have to deploy so that they can say they have 5G?" is still waiting for an answer.
Question: How many 5G sites does an operator have to deploy so that they can say they have 5G?— Zahid Ghadialy (@zahidtg) October 18, 2017
5G device outlook
Qualcomm has made a good progress (video) on this front and there are already test modems available for 5G. I wont be surprised with the launch. It would remain to be seen what will be the price point and demand for these 5G data-only devices. The Register put it quite bluntly about guinea pigs here. I am also worried about the misleading 5G claims (see here).
Voice over LTE (VoLTE) outlook
Back in 2011, I suggested the following (tweet below)
Looks like things haven't changed significantly. There are still many low end devices that do not support VoLTE and many operators dont support VoLTE on BYOD. VoLTE has been much harder than everyone imagined it to be.Soon = before 2015. Ideally, if its working then never, until forced - RT @Gabeuk: I suspect VoLTE adoption will pick-up briskly in 2013.— Zahid Ghadialy (@zahidtg) July 13, 2011
Mobile subscriptions worldwide by region
I think that for some regions these predictions may be a bit optimistic. Many operators are struggling with finance and revenue, especially as the pricing going down due to intense competition. It would be interesting to see how these numbers hold up next year.
While China has been added to North-East Asia, it may be a useful exercise to separate it. Similarly Middle East should be separated from Africa as the speed of change is going to be significantly different.
Mobile data Traffic Growth and Outlook
This is one of the toughest areas of prediction as there are a large number of factors affecting this from pricing to devices and applications.
Quiz question: Do you remember which year did data traffic overtake voice traffic? Answer here (external link to avoid spoilers)
Mobile traffic by application category
It would have been interesting if games were a separate category. Not sure if it has been lumped with Video/Audio or in Other segments.
IoT connections outlook
It is important to look at the following 2 definitions though.
Short-range IoT: Segment that largely consists of devices connected by unlicensed radio technologies, with a typical range of up to 100 meters, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Zigbee. This category also includes devices connected over fixed-line local area networks and powerline technologies
Wide-area IoT: Segment consisting of devices using cellular connections, as well as unlicensed low-power technologies, such as Sigfox and LoRa
A lot of work needs to be done in this area to improve coverage in rural and remote locations.
I will leave this post at this point. The report also contains details on Network Evolution, Network Performance, Smart Manufacturing, etc. You can read it from the report.
Before we look at the presentations, what exactly was the point of looking at 5G Security? Here is an explanation from ETSI:
5G phase 1 specifications are now done, and the world is preparing for the arrival of 5G networks. A major design goal of 5G is a high degree of flexibility to better cater for specific needs of actors from outside the telecom sector (e.g. automotive industry, mission-critical organisations). During this workshop, we will review how well 5G networks can provide security for different trust models, security policies, and deployment scenarios – not least for ongoing threats in the IoT world. 5G provides higher flexibility than legacy networks by network slicing and virtualization of functions. The workshop aims to discuss how network slicing could help in fulfilling needs for different users of 5G networks.
5G will allow the use of different authentication methods. This raises many interesting questions. How are these authentication methods supported in devices via the new secure element defined in ETSI SCP, or vendor-specific concepts? How can mission-critical and low-cost IoT use cases coexist side-by-side on the same network?
The 5G promise of higher flexibility is also delivered via its Service-Based Architecture (SBA). SBA provides open 3rd party interfaces to support new business models which allow direct impact on network functions. Another consequence of SBA is a paradigm shift for inter-operator networks: modern APIs will replace legacy signaling protocols between networks. What are the relevant security measures to protect the SBA and all parties involved? What is the role of international carrier networks like IPX in 5G?
The workshop intends to:
Session 1: Input to 5G: Views from Different Stakeholders
Session Chair: Bengt Sahlin, Ericsson
Hardening a Mission Critical Service Using 5G, Peter Haigh, NCSC
Security in the Automotive Electronics Area, Alexios Lekidis, SecurityMatters
Integrating the SIM (iUICC), Adrian Escott, QUALCOMM
Smart Secure Platform, Klaus Vedder, Giesecke & Devrient, ETSI SCP Chairman
Network Slicing, Anne-Marie Praden, Gemalto
Don't build on Sand: Validating the Security Requirements of NFV Infrastructure to Confidently Run Slices, Nicolas Thomas, Fortinet
5G Enhancements to Non-3GPP Access Security, Andreas Kunz, Lenovo
Security and Privacy of IoT in 5G, Marcus Wong, Huawei Technologies
ITU-T activities and Action Plan on 5G Security, Yang Xiaoya, ITU-T SG17
Wrap up: 5G Overview from 3GPP SA3 Perspective and What is There to Be Done for Phase 2, Sander Kievit, TNO
Session 2: Security in 5G Inter-Network Signalling
Session Chair: Stefan Schroeder, T-Systems
Presentation on SBA: Introduction of the Topic and Current Status in SA3, Stefan Schroeder, T-Systems
5G Inter-PLMN Security: The Trade-off Between Security and the Existing IPX Business Model, Ewout Pronk, KPN on behalf of GSMA Diameter End to End Security Subgroup
Secure Interworking Between Networks in 5G Service Based Architecture, Silke Holtmanns, Nokia Bell Labs
Security Best Practises using RESTful APIs, Sven Walther, CA Technologies
Identifying and Managing the Issues around 5G Interconnect Security, Stephen Buck, Evolved Intelligence
Zero Trust Security Posture in 5G Architecture, Galina Pildush, Palo Alto Networks (Missing)
Session 1 & 2 Workshop Wrap up: 5G Phase 1 Conclusions and Outlook Towards Phase 2 - Stefan Schroeder, T-Systems and Bengt Sahlin, Ericsson
Session 5: Benefits and Challenges of 5G and IoT From a Security Perspective
Session Chair: Arthur van der Wees, Arthur's Legal
Setting the Scene, Franck Boissière, European Commission
ENISA's View on Security Implications of IoT and 5G, Apostolos Malatras, ENISA
Smart City Aspects, Bram Reinders, Institute for Future of Living
The Network Operators Perspective on IoT Security, Ian Smith, GSMA
As I have used both these apps frequently, here is a small summary on them.As Veix and others have said, missing Network Signal Guru and Cellmapper which are the only two I use nowadays.— Peter Clarke (@PedroClarke1) June 25, 2018
Network Signal Guru: This is surprisingly very popular and is quite useful. The only issue is that you need to have a rooted phone with Qualcomm chipset. I know many testers have their favourite phones and quite a few testers buy the latest phones, root them and start testing using NSG (Network Signal Guru).
I prefer using Motorola Moto Gx series phones. They are cheap, not too difficult to root (YouTube have quite a few tutorials and Google search works too) and I find that their receivers are better than others. Have detected cells that other phones cant and have even camped and speed tested on them too.10 spatial streams, 4x4 MIMO, DL-256QAM, UL-64QAM, 4-Carrier Aggregation, LAA, 80MHz of spectrum, 500Mbps in the middle of Manhattan.— Milan Milanović (@milanmilanovic) March 10, 2018
Nicely done @TMobile@NevilleRay@EricssonNetwork@Qualcomm_Tech@MotorolaUSpic.twitter.com/jvrQwvERef
So what can NSG do?
It can provide lots of useful information on the physical layer, cell configurations, neighbor cell lists, MIMO, etc.
Finally, one of the best things I find is the signalling information. Some of the details are only available for purchased option, its nevertheless very useful. Just in case you are wondering how much does it cost, its roughly £50 per month license in UK.
Cell Mapper: I find this much more helpful as it can be used without rooting. CellMapper is a crowd-sourced cellular tower and coverage mapping service. Its simple and only used for basic testing but nevertheless very useful. To give you an idea, the other day I was camped on a cell with very good signal quality but very poor data rates and there weren't many people so congestion didn't seem like a factor. On investigation I found out that I was camped on 800MHz band that has limited bandwidth per operator and there was no CA.
Cell mapper, as you can see provides information about the cell you are camped on, the cell tower location, what other sectors and frequencies are there, etc.
Do you have a favorite testing app that I missed? Let me know in comments.
Terahertz wave: Just as we use the phrase ‘kilo’ to mean 103 , so we use the term ‘giga’ to mean 109 and the term ‘tera’ to mean 1012 . “Hertz (Hz)” is a unit of a physical quantity called frequency. It indicates how many times alternating electric signals and electromagnetic waves change polarity (plus and minus) per second. That is, one terahertz (1 THz = 1,000 GHz) is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave changing the polarity by 1 × 1012 times per second. In general, a terahertz wave often indicates an electromagnetic wave of 0.3 THz to 3 THz.
While there are quite a few different numbers, this is the one that is most commonly being used. The following is the details of research NTT did.
In this research, we realized 100 Gbps wireless transmission with one wave (one carrier), so in the future, we can extend to multiple carriers by making use of the wide frequency band of 300 GHz band, and use spatial multiplexing technology such as MIMO and OAM. It is expected to be an ultra high-speed IC technology that enables high-capacity wireless transmission of 400 gigabits per second. This is about 400 times the current LTE and Wi-Fi, and 40 times 5G, the next-generation mobile communication technology. It is also expected to be a technology that opens up utilization of the unused terahertz wave frequency band in the communications field and non-communication fields.
Complete article and paper available here.
Huawei has also been doing research in W (92 - 114.5 GHz) and D (130 - 174.5 GHz) bands.NTT Docomo has been doing 5G Field Testing of Ultra-high-speed, Long-distance Transmission Using mmWave in 28, 39 GHz in collaboration with @Huawei . Achieved high speed communication over distances exceeding 1 km with mmWave - https://t.co/a03SdqVhI7pic.twitter.com/rlsqRAJ5YC— 3G4G (@3g4gUK) July 2, 2018
A recent presentation by Debora Gentina, ETSI ISG mWT WI#8 Rapporteur at the UK Spectrum Policy Forum is embedded below.
This presentation can be downloaded from UK SPF site here. Another event on beyond 100GHz that took place last year has some interesting presentations too. Again, on UKSPF site here.
Ericsson has an interesting article in Technology Review, looking at beyond 100GHz from backhaul point of view. Its available here.
If 5G is going to start using the frequencies traditionally used by backhaul then backhaul will have to start looking at other options too.
Happy to listen to your thoughts and insights on this topic.
During the Q&A, Egil mentioned that because of the way the USA has different markets, on average they have 31 MHz of 600 MHz (Band 71). The minimum is 20 MHz and the maximum is 50 MHz.
So I started wondering how would they launch 4G & 5G in the same band for nationwide coverage? They have a good video on their 5G vision but that is of course probably going to come few years down the line.
The Master Node (recall dual connectivity for LTE, Release-12. See here) is an eNodeB. As with any LTE node, it can take bandwidths from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz. So the minimum bandwidth for LTE node is 1.4 MHz.
The Secondary Node is a gNodeB. Looking at 3GPP TS 38.101-1, Table 5.3.5-1 Channel bandwidths for each NR band, I can see that for band 71
NR band / SCS / UE Channel bandwidth
The minimum bandwidth is 5MHz. Of course this is paired spectrum for FDD band but the point I am making here is that you need just 6.4 MHz minimum to be able to support the Non-Standalone 5G option.
I am sure you can guess that the speeds will not really be 5G speeds with this amount of bandwidth but I am looking forward to all these kind of complaints in the initial phase of 5G network rollout.
I dont know what bandwidths T-Mobile will be using but we will see at least 10MHz of NR in case where the total spectrum is 20 MHz and 20 MHz of NR where the total spectrum is 50 MHz.
If you look at the earlier requirements list, the number being thrown about for bandwidth was 100 MHz for below 6 GHz and up to 1 GHz bandwidth for spectrum above 6 GHz. Don't think there was a hard and fast requirement though.
Happy to hear your thoughts.
5G will probably introduce tighter synchronization requirements than LTE. A recent presentation from Ericsson provides more details.
In frequencies below 6GHz (referred to as frequency range 1 or FR1 in standards), there is a probability to use both FDD and TDD bands, especially in case of re-farming of existing bands. In frequencies above 6GHz (referred to as frequency range 2 or FR2 in standards, even though FR2 starts from 24.25 GHz), it is expected that all bands would be TDD.A nice presentation by Ericsson from #WSTS2018: Sync in 5G: What is really needed? - https://t.co/X3XIokELpepic.twitter.com/6du5ezFfqE— 3G4G (@3g4gUK) July 17, 2018
Interesting to see that the cell phase synchronization accuracy measured at BS antenna connectors is specified to be better than 3 μs in 3GPP TS 38 133. This translates into a network-wide requirements of +/-1.5 microseconds and is applicable to both FR1 and FR2, regardless of the cell size.
Frequency Error for NR specified in 3GPP TS 38.104 states that the base station (BS) shall be accurate to within the following accuracy range observed over 1 ms:
Wide Area BS → ±0.05 ppm
Medium Range BS → ±0.1 ppm
Local Area BS → ±0.1 ppm
The presentation specifies that based on request by some operators, studies in ITU-T on the feasibility of solutions targeting end-to-end time synchronization requirements on the order of +/-100 ns to +/-300 ns
There is also a challenge of how the sync information is transported within the network. The conclusion is that while the current LTE sync requirements would work in the short term, new solutions would be required in the longer term.
If this is an area of interest, you will also enjoy watching CW Heritage SIG talk by Prof. Andy Sutton, "The history of synchronisation in digital cellular networks". Its available here.
Many regular readers of this blog are aware that back in 2014 I wrote a post looking critically at LTE-Broadcast business case and suggested a few approaches to make it a success. Back in those days, 2014 was being billed as the year of LTE-Broadcast or eMBMS (see here and here for example). I was just cautioning people against jumping on the LTE-B bandwagon.
According to a recent GSA report 'LTE Broadcast (eMBMS) Market Update– March 2018':
Its good to see some operators now getting ready to deploy eMBMS for broadcast TV scenarios. eMBMS will also be used in Mission Critical Communications for the features described here.
In a recent news from the Australian operator Telstra:
Telstra is now streaming live sports content to a massive base of around 1.2 million devices each weekend and sports fans consume 37 million minutes of live content over our apps on any given weekend.
This increase brings new challenges to the way traffic on our mobile network is managed. Even though a large group of people might be streaming the same real-time content at the same time, we still need to ensure a high quality streaming experience for our customers.
This challenge makes our sporting apps a prime use case for LTE-Broadcast (LTE-B).
Earlier this year, we announced we would be turning on LTE-B functionality on the AFL Live Official app for Telstra customers with Samsung Galaxy S8 and Galaxy S9 devices. Following extensive testing, Telstra is the only operator in Australia – and one of the first in the world – to deploy LTE-B into its mobile network.
At a live demonstration in Sydney, over 100 Samsung Galaxy S8 and Galaxy S9 devices were on display showing simultaneous high definition content from the AFL Live Official app using LTE-B.
Its interesting to note here that the broadcast functionality (and probably intelligence) is built into the app.
According to another Telstra news item (emphasis mine):
The use of LTE-Broadcast technology changes the underlying efficiency of live video delivery as each cell can now support an unlimited number of users watching the same content with improved overall quality. To date though, LTE-B technology has required that a dedicated part of each cell’s capacity be set aside for broadcasting. This had made the LTE-B business case harder to prove in for lower streaming demand rates.
This has now changed as Telstra and our partners have enabled the world’s first implementation of the Multicast Operation on Demand (MooD) feature whereby cells in the network only need to configure for LTE-B when there are multiple users watching the same content.
This combined with the Service Continuity feature allows mobile users to move around the network seamlessly between cells configured for LTE-B and those which are not.
Earlier this year we announced our intention to enable LTE-Broadcast (LTE-B) across our entire mobile network in 2018. With MooD and service continuity we are one step closer to that goal as we head into another year of major growth in sporting content demand.
Supported by technology partners Ericsson and Qualcomm, Telstra has now delivered world first capability to ensure LTE-B can be delivered as efficiently as possible.
Service Continuity will allow devices to transition in and out of LTE-B coverage areas without interruption. For instance, you might be at a music festival streaming an event on your phone but need to leave the venue and make your way back home (where LTE-B is not in use). Service Continuity means you can continue to watch the stream and the transition will be seamless – even though you have the left the broadcast area.
Taking that a step further, MooD allows the network to determine how many LTE-B compatible devices in any given area are consuming the same content. MooD then intelligently activates or deactivates LTE-B, ensuring the mobile network is as efficient as possible in that location.
For example, if a die-hard football fan is streaming a match we will likely service that one user with unicast, as that is the most efficient way of delivering the content. However if more users in the same cell decide to watch the match, MooD makes the decision automatically as to whether it is more efficient to service those users by switching the stream to broadcasting instead of individual unicast streams.
Its good to see Ericsson & Qualcomm finally taking eMBMS to commercial deployment. Back in 2015, I added their videos from MWC that year. See post here.
Qualcomm whitepaper above makes it much clearer. Back in 3G MBMS and early days or eMBMS, there used to be a feature called counting, MooD is effectively doing the same thing.
Note that this Expway paper also refers to Service continuity as Session continuity.
3GPP TR 23.791: Study of Enablers for Network Automation for 5G (Release 16) describes the following 5G Network Architecture Assumptions:
1The NWDAF (Network Data Analytics Function) as defined in TS 23.503 is used for data collection and data analytics in centralized manner. An NWDAF may be used for analytics for one or more Network Slice.
2For instances where certain analytics can be performed by a 5GS NF independently, a NWDAF instance specific to that analytic maybe collocated with the 5GS NF. The data utilized by the 5GS NF as input to analytics in this case should also be made available to allow for the centralized NWDAF deployment option.
35GS Network Functions and OAM decide how to use the data analytics provided by NWDAF to improve the network performance.
4NWDAF utilizes the existing service based interfaces to communicate with other 5GC Network Functions and OAM.
5A 5GC NF may expose the result of the data analytics to any consumer NF utilizing a service based interface.
6The interactions between NF(s) and the NWDAF take place in the local PLMN (the reporting NF and the NWDAF belong to the same PLMN).
7Solutions shall neither assume NWDAF knowledge about NF application logic. The NWDAF may use subscription data but only for statistical purpose.
Continuing from 3GPP TR 23.791:
The NWDAF may serve use cases belonging to one or several domains, e.g. QoS, traffic steering, dimensioning, security.
The input data of the NWDAF may come from multiple sources, and the resulting actions undertaken by the consuming NF or AF may concern several domains (e.g. Mobility management, Session Management, QoS management, Application layer, Security management, NF life cycle management).
Use case descriptions should include the following aspects:
1.General characteristics (domain: performance, QoS, resilience, security; time scale).
2.Nature of input data (e.g. logs, KPI, events).
3.Types of NF consuming the NWDAF output data, how data is conveyed and nature of consumed analytics.
5.Possible examples of actions undertaken by the consuming NF or AF, resulting from these analytics.
6.Benefits, e.g. revenue, resource saving, QoE, service assurance, reputation.
3GPP TS 23.501 V15.2.0 (2018-06) Section 6.2.18says:
NWDAF represents operator managed network analytics logical function. NWDAF provides slice specific network data analytics to a NF. NWDAF provides network analytics information (i.e., load level information) to a NF on a network slice instance level and the NWDAF is not required to be aware of the current subscribers using the slice. NWDAF notifies slice specific network status analytic information to the NFs that are subscribed to it. NF may collect directly slice specific network status analytic information from NWDAF. This information is not subscriber specific.
In this Release of the specification, both PCF and NSSF are consumers of network analytics. The PCF may use that data in its policy decisions. NSSF may use the load level information provided by NWDAF for slice selection.
NOTE 1:NWDAF functionality beyond its support for Nnwdaf is out of scope of 3GPP.
NOTE 2:NWDAF functionality for non-slice-specific analytics information is not supported in this Release of the specification.
3GPP Release-16 is going to focus on 5G expansion & efficiency. Listen to the @3GPPLive Webinar here: https://t.co/tKzXJ3cUFjpic.twitter.com/1xCZfpT9lt— 3G4G (@3g4gUK) July 14, 2018
The 3GPP standards group is developing a machine learning function that could allow 5G operators to monitor the status of a network slice or third-party application performance.
The network data analytics function (NWDAF) forms a part of the 3GPP's 5G standardization efforts and could become a central point for analytics in the 5G core network, said Serge Manning, a senior technology strategist at Sprint Corp.
Speaking here in Madrid, Manning said the NWDAF was still in the "early stages" of standardization but could become "an interesting place for innovation."
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) froze the specifications for a 5G new radio standard at the end of 2017 and is due to freeze another set of 5G specifications, covering some of the core network and non-radio features, in June this year as part of its "Release 15" update.
Manning says that Release 15 considers the network slice selection function (NSSF) and the policy control function (PCF) as potential "consumers" of the NWDAF. "Anything else is open to being a consumer," he says. "We have things like monitoring the status of the load of a network slice, or looking at the behavior of mobile devices if you wanted to make adjustments. You could also look at application performance."
In principle, the NWDAF would be able to make use of any data in the core network. The 3GPP does not plan on standardizing the algorithms that will be used but rather the types of raw information the NWDAF will examine. The format of the analytics information that it produces might also be standardized, says Manning.
Such technical developments might help operators to provide network slices more dynamically on their future 5G networks.
Generally seen as one of the most game-changing aspects of 5G, the technique of network slicing would essentially allow an operator to provide a number of virtual network services over the same physical infrastructure.
For example, an operator could provide very high-speed connectivity for mobile gaming over one slice and a low-latency service for factory automation on another -- both reliant on the same underlying hardware.
However, there is concern that without greater automation operators will have less freedom to innovate through network slicing. "If operators don't automate they will be providing capacity-based slices that are relatively large and static and undifferentiated and certainly not on a per-customer basis," says Caroline Chappell, an analyst with Analysys Mason .
In a Madrid presentation, Chappell said that more granular slicing would require "highly agile end-to-end automation" that takes advantage of progress on software-defined networking and network functions virtualization.
"Slices could be very dynamic and perhaps last for only five minutes," she says. "In the very long term, applications could create their own slices."
Despite the talk of standardization, and signs of good progress within the 3GPP, concern emerged this week in Madrid that standards bodies are not moving quickly enough to address operators' needs.
Caroline Chappell's talk is available here whereas Serge Manning's talk is embedded below:
I am helping CW organise the annual CW TEC conference on the topic The inevitable automation of Next Generation Networks
Communications networks are perhaps the most complex machines on the planet. They use vast amounts of hardware, rely on complex software, and are physically distributed over land, underwater, and in orbit. They increasingly provide essential services that underpin almost every aspect of life. Managing networks and optimising their performance is a vast challenge, and will become many times harder with the advent of 5G. The 4th Annual CW Technology Conference will explore this challenge and how Machine Learning and AI may be applied to build more reliable, secure and better performing networks.#CWTEC 2018 planning committee working hard to bring an exciting conference - explores the role of #AI in delivering Next Gen. Network performance; & bridges the gap between #AI/#ML& Telecos communities! @zahidtg@Bob_CWCEO@swunger Paul Ceely @bt_uk , John Haine @BristolCSNpic.twitter.com/4uGprC1usg— Sylvia Lu (@SylviaLuUk) July 23, 2018
Is the AI community aware of the challenges facing network providers? Are the network operators and providers aware of how the very latest developments in AI may provide solutions? The conference will aim to bridge the gap between AI/ML and communications network communities, making each more aware of the nature and scale of the problems and the potential solutions.
I am hoping to see some of this blog readers at the conference. Looking forward to learning more on this topic amongst others for network automation.
As per this recent ITU Press Release:
The International Telecommunication Union, the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technology (ICT), has launched a new research initiative to identify emerging and future ICT sector network demands, beyond 2030 and the advances expected of IMT-2020 (5G) systems. This work will be carried out by the newly established ITU Focus Group on Technologies for Network 2030, which is open to all interested parties.
The ITU focus group aims to guide the global ICT community in developing a "Network 2030" vision for future ICTs. This will include new concepts, new architecture, new protocols – and new solutions – that are fully backward compatible, so as to support both existing and new applications.
"The work of the ITU Focus Group on Technologies for 'Network 2030' will provide network system experts around the globe with a very valuable international reference point from which to guide the innovation required to support ICT use cases through 2030 and beyond," said ITU Secretary-General Houlin Zhao.
These ICT use cases will span new media such as hologrammes, a new generation of augmented and virtual reality applications, and high-precision communications for 'tactile' and 'haptic' applications in need of processing a very high volume of data in near real-time – extremely high throughput and low latency.
Emphasizing this need, the focus group's chairman, Huawei's Richard Li, said, "This Focus Group will look at new media, new services and new architectures. Holographic type communications will have a big part to play in industry, agriculture, education, entertainment – and in many other fields. Supporting such capabilities will call for very high throughput in the range of hundreds of gigabits per second or even higher."
The ITU Focus Group on Technologies for 'Network 2030' is co-chaired by Verizon's Mehmet Toy, Rostelecom's Alexey Borodin, China Telecom's Yuan Zhang, Yutaka Miyake from KDDI Research, and is coordinated through ITU's Telecommunication Standardization Sector – which works with ITU's 193 Member States and more than 800 industry and academic members to establish international standards for emerging ICT innovations.
The ITU focus group reports to and will inform a new phase of work of the ITU standardization expert group for 'Future Networks' – Study Group 13. It will also strengthen and leverage collaborative relationships with and among other standards development organizations including: The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (ACM SIGCOMM), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Communications Society (IEEE ComSoc).
According to the Focus Group page:
The FG NET-2030, as a platform to study and advance international networking technologies, will investigate the future network architecture, requirements, use cases, and capabilities of the networks for the year 2030 and beyond.
The objectives include:
• To study, review and survey existing technologies, platforms, and standards for identifying the gaps and challenges towards Network 2030, which are not supported by the existing and near future networks like 5G/IMT-2020.
• To formulate all aspects of Network 2030, including vision, requirements, architecture, novel use cases, evaluation methodology, and so forth.
• To provide guidelines for standardization roadmap.
• To establish liaisons and relationships with other SDOs.
An ITU interview with Dr. Richard Li, Huawei, Chairman of the ITU-T FG on Network 2030 is available on YouTube here.
A recent presentation by Dr. Richard Li on this topic is embedded below:
First Workshop on Network 2030 will be held in New York City, United States on 2 October 2018. Details here.
Its been a while since I blogged about pricing strategies (see old posts here, here and here). I recently enjoyed listening to Soichi Nakajima, Director of "Digital Telco and OTT" at IDATE DigiWorld when he presented a talk on LTE pricing strategy. The slides are embedded below
I think the slides are self-explanatory but here is the summary worth highlighting:
How LTE plans have changed: shift in focus from data allowance to quality of service
The slides are available to download from techUK page here. There is also a bonus presentation on "How to address the challenges of providing connectivity on trains".
Earlier, I wrote a detailed post on how Telefonica was on a mission to connect 100 Million Unconnected with their 'Internet para todos' initiative. This video below is a good advert of what Telefinica is trying to achieve in Latin America
I recently came across a LinkedIn post on how Telefónica uses AI / ML to connect the unconnected by Patrick Lopez, VP Networks Innovation @ Telefonica. It was no brainer that this needs to be shared.
In his post, Patrick mentions the following:
To deliver internet in these environments in a sustainable manner, it is necessary to increase efficiency through systematic cost reduction, investment optimization and targeted deployments.
Systematic optimization necessitates continuous measurement of the financial, operational, technological and organizational data sets.
1. Finding the unconnected
The first challenge the team had to tackle was to understand how many unconnected there are and where. The data set was scarce and incomplete, census was old and population had much mobility. In this case, the team used high definition satellite imagery at the scale of the country and used neural network models, coupled with census data as training. Implementing visual machine learning algorithms, the model literally counted each house and each settlement at the scale of the country. The model was then enriched with crossed reference coverage data from regulatory source, as well as Telefonica proprietary data set consisting of geolocalized data sessions and deployment maps. The result is a model with a visual representation, providing a map of the population dispersion, with superimposed coverage polygons, allowing to count and localize the unconnected populations with good accuracy (95% of the population with less than 3% false positive and less than 240 meters deviation in the location of antennas).
2. Optimizing transport
Transport networks are the most expensive part of deploying connectivity to remote areas. Optimizing transport route has a huge impact on the sustainability of a network. This is why the team selected this task as the next challenge to tackle.
The team started with adding road and infrastructure data to the model form public sources, and used graph generation to cluster population settlements. Graph analysis (shortest path, Steiner tree) yielded population density-optimized transport routes.
3. AI to optimize network operations
To connect very remote zones, optimizing operations and minimizing maintenance and upgrade is key to a sustainable operational model. This line of work is probably the most ambitious for the team. When it can take 3 hours by plane and 4 days by boat to reach some locations, being able to make sure you can detect, or better, predict if / when you need to perform maintenance on your infrastructure. Equally important is how your devise your routes so that you are as efficient as possible. In this case, the team built a neural network trained with historical failure analysis and fed with network metrics to provide a model capable of supervising the network health in an automated manner, with prediction of possible failure and optimized maintenance route.
I think that the type of data driven approach to complex problem solving demonstrated in this project is the key to network operators' sustainability in the future. It is not only a rural problem, it is necessary to increase efficiency and optimize deployment and operations to keep decreasing the costs.
Finally, its worth mentioning again that I am helping CW (Cambridge Wireless) organise their annual CW TEC conference on the topic 'The inevitable automation of Next Generation Networks'. There are some good speakers and we will have similar topics covered from different angles, using some other interesting approaches. The fees are very reasonable so please join if you can.
I heard Professor Harald Haas at IEEE Glasgow Summit speak about how many of the limitations of LiFi have been overcome in the last few years (see videos below). This is a welcome news as there is a tremendous amount of Visible Light Spectrum that is available for exploitation.
While many discussions on LiFi revolve round its use as access technology, I think the real potential lies in its use as backhaul for densification.
For 5G, when we are looking at small cells, every few hundred meters, probably on streetlights and lamp posts, there is a requirement for alternative backhaul to fiber. Its difficult to run fiber to each and every lamp post. Traditionally, this was solved by microwave solutions but another option available in 5G is Integrated Access and Backhauling (IAB) or Self-backhauling.
A better alternative could be to use LiFi for this backhauling between lamp posts or streetlights. This can help avoid complications with IAB when multiple nodes are close by and also any complications with the technology until it matures. This approach is of course being trialed but as the picture above shows, rural backhaul is just one option.
Here is a vieo playlist explaining LiFi technology in detail.
We have just produced a new tutorial on Fixed Wireless Access (FWA). The high level introductory tutorial looks at what is meant by Fixed Wireless Access, which is being touted as one of the initial 5G use cases. This presentation introduces FWA and looks at a practical deployment example.
According to GSA report, "Global Progress to 5G – Trials, Deployments and Launches", July 2018:
One use-case that has gained prominence is the use of 5G to deliver fixed wireless broadband services. We have identified 20 tests so far that have specifically focused on the fixed wireless access (FWA) use-case, which is five more than three months ago.
Embedded below is the video and presentation of the FWA tutorial.
If you found this useful, you would be interested in other tutorials on the 3G4G website here.
Network slicing is a specific form of virtualization that allows multiple logical networks to run on top of a shared physical network infrastructure. The key benefit of the network slicing concept is that it provides an end-to-end virtual network encompassing not just networking but compute and storage functions too. The objective is to allow a physical mobile network operator to partition its network resources to allow for very different users, so-called tenants, to multiplex over a single physical infrastructure. The most commonly cited example in 5G discussions is sharing of a given physical network to simultaneously run Internet of Things (IoT), Mobile Broadband (MBB), and very low-latency (e.g. vehicular communications) applications. These applications obviously have very different transmission characteristics. For example, IoT will typically have a very large number of devices, but each device may have very low throughput. MBB has nearly the opposite properties since it will have a much smaller number of devices, but each one will be transmitting or receiving very high bandwidth content. The intent of network slicing is to be able to partition the physical network at an end-to-end level to allow optimum grouping of traffic, isolation from other tenants, and configuring of resources at a macro level.
The key differentiator of the network slicing approach is that it provides a holistic end-to-end virtual network for a given tenant. No existing QoS-based solution can offer anything like this. For example, DiffServ, which is the most widely deployed QoS solution, can discriminate VoIP traffic from other types of traffic such as HD video and web browsing. However, DiffServ cannot discriminate and differentially treat the same type of traffic (e.g. VoIP traffic) coming from different tenants.
Also, DiffServ does not have the ability to perform traffic isolation at all. For example, IoT traffic from a health monitoring network (e.g. connecting hospitals and outpatients) typically have strict privacy and security requirements including where the data can be stored and who can access it. This cannot be accomplished by DiffServ as it does not have any features dealing with the compute and storage aspects of the network. All these identified shortfalls of DiffServ will be handled by the features being developed for network slicing.
I came across this presentation by Peter Ashwood-Smith from Huawei Technologies who presented '5G End to-end network slicing Demo' at ITU-T Focus Group IMT-2020 Workshop and Demo Day on 7 December 2016. Its a great presentation, I wish a video of this was available as well. Anyway, the presentation is embedded below and the PPT can be downloaded from here.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has established a new Industry Specification Group (ISG) on Zero touch network and Service Management (ZSM) that is working to produce a set of technical specifications on fully automated network and service management with, ideally, zero human intervention. ZSM is targeted for 5G, particularly in network slice deployment. NTT Technical review article on this is available here.
Finally, here is a presentation by Sridhar Bhaskaran of Cellular Insights blog on this topic. Unfortunately, not available for download.
I heard David Barker, CTO of Quintel at Cambridge Wireless event titled "Radio technology for 5G – making it work" talking about the antennas consideration for 5G. There are quite a few important areas in this presentation for consideration. The presentation is embedded below:
A recent Cambridge Wireless event 'Radio technology for 5G – making it work' was an excellent event where all speakers delivered an interesting and insightful presentation. These presentations are all available to view and download for everyone for a limited time here.
I blogged about the base station antennas last week but there are other couple of presentations that stood out for me.
The first was an excellent presentation from Sylvia Lu from u-Blox, also my fellow CW Board Member. Her talk covered variety of topics including IoT, IIoT, LTE-V2X and Cellular positioning, including 5G NR Positioning Trend. The presentation is embedded below and available to download from Slideshare
The other presentation on 5G NR was one from Yinan Qi of Samsung R&D. His presentation looked at variety of topics, mainly Layer 1 including Massive MIMO, Beamforming, Beam Management, Bandwidth Part, Reference Signals, Phase noise, etc. His presentation is embedded below and can be downloaded from SlideShare.